Library briefings are produced for the benefit of Members of the House of Lords. They provide impartial, authoritative, politically balanced information in support of Members’ parliamentary duties. They are intended as a general briefing only and should not be relied on as a substitute for specific advice.  

Every effort is made to ensure that the information contained in Lords Library briefings is correct at the time of publication. Readers should be aware however that briefings are not necessarily updated or otherwise amended to reflect subsequent changes. The House of Lords or the authors(s) shall not be liable for any errors or omissions, or for any loss or damage of any kind arising from its use, and may remove, vary or amend any information at any time without prior notice.The House of Lords accepts no responsibility for any references or links to, or the content of, information maintained by third parties. 

This information is provided subject to the conditions of the Open Parliament Licence

Authors are available to discuss the contents of the briefings with the Members and their staff but cannot advise members of the general public. Any comments on Library briefings should be emailed to hlresearchservices@parliament.uk.