Documents to download

On 29 March 2017, the UK formally notified the European Union of its intention to withdraw from its membership by triggering Article 50 of the Treaty on European Union. Under Article 50, the UK and the EU will have two years to negotiate a withdrawal agreement (unless there is a unanimous decision by the European Council, with the agreement of the UK, to extend this). A separate agreement may be necessary to establish future relations between the UK and the EU.

Ahead of these negotiations, this Lords Library briefing profiles each of the EU27 member states. It provides information about their membership of the EU, the size of their economies, their trade in goods and services with the UK and their populations, including the estimated number of citizens from each EU member state residing in the UK, and the number of UK citizens residing in each EU member state. It also provides a snapshot of the EU27 member states’ perspectives on the UK’s departure from the EU, up until the point Article 50 was invoked by the UK. It does this by setting out the key points made and issues raised by the current head of government/state (where possible) in each of these countries, who in holding these positions are also members of the European Council (in some cases other relevant figures, such as government ministers, are quoted). In focusing on the heads of government/state, the briefing does not include the views of other political opinions in those countries. Consequently, the briefing will not, therefore, fully capture the domestic political situation in each of those countries. Additionally, the views expressed may not remain static as negotiations start and develop. The governments of individual member states may change their views and positions, and/or personnel changes may take place in governments that affect these perspectives.

Documents to download

Related posts

  • Border controls for UK and EU imports and exports

    In August 2023, the UK government published its ‘border target operating model’ (BTOM), which set out how the UK would gradually introduce full border controls on imports into Great Britain from the EU. The BTOM is being introduced gradually during 2024. The second phase is scheduled to commence on 30 April 2024 and is set to include the introduction of full sanitary and phytosanitary checks on certain goods imported from the EU. This briefing looks at the controls being introduced on 30 April 2024, as well as concerns raised by industries about how the changes could impact EU imports.

    Border controls for UK and EU imports and exports
  • Educational trips and exchanges: Budget challenges, post-Brexit travel, and the introduction of the Turing scheme

    Educational trips and exchanges can help young people develop language and life skills. However, school leaders, travel organisations, and the House of Lords European Affairs Committee have raised concerns that fewer trips are taking place, pointing to factors including travel complexities post-Brexit and budget considerations. The government has acknowledged the importance of trips and exchanges, highlighting the Turing scheme and the recent agreement to simplify travel requirements for school visits with France.

    Educational trips and exchanges: Budget challenges, post-Brexit travel, and the introduction of the Turing scheme
  • Current Affairs Digest: Constitution (April 2024)

    This briefing considers the impact of a recent judgment by the Northern Ireland High Court to disapply provisions of the Northern Ireland Troubles (Legacy and Reconciliation) Act 2023 on the basis they are incompatible with the European Convention on Human Rights and the Windsor Framework Brexit agreement.

    Current Affairs Digest: Constitution (April 2024)