Documents to download

This Library Note provides background reading in advance of the debate to be held on 31 January on the Prime Minister’s speech on Europe on 23 January. The Note provides a short history of Prime Ministerial speeches on Europe since 1970; outlines Government policy towards Europe since 2010; summarises David Cameron’s speech and selected reaction to it; and considers some aspects of the proposed renegotiation and referendum. It concludes with information about trends in public opinion towards Britain’s membership of the EU.


Documents to download

Related posts

  • War in Ukraine: Could Russia use nuclear weapons?

    This article summarises recent developments in the war between Russia and Ukraine and assessments of whether Russia could use tactical nuclear weapons in the conflict. Tactical nuclear weapons are designed for use on the battlefield, and they have lower explosive yields than ‘strategic’ nuclear weapons. Commentators have argued that the risk of Russia using tactical nuclear weapons is low, but it could rise if Russia faced defeat in Ukraine.

    War in Ukraine: Could Russia use nuclear weapons?
  • BBC World Service: Soft power and funding challenges

    The BBC World Service delivers news in over 40 languages through TV, radio and digital services. It has a weekly reach of 365 million people and is principally funded by the BBC licence fee, with some grants from the Foreign, Commonwealth and Development Office. In September 2022, the BBC announced plans to “accelerate its digital offering” which, it said, would lead to around 382 job losses and more language services being digital only. It said “tough choices” were necessary to make savings.

    BBC World Service: Soft power and funding challenges
  • Human rights in the Gulf states

    The six countries that together comprise the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) have long been criticised for their human rights records. The UK’s engagement with GCC members, whether bilaterally or collectively through recent trade negotiations, has drawn criticism as a result. Critics of continued engagement suggest it could risk the UK being seen to condone continuing human rights abuses, although the UK government maintains that it regularly raises human rights concerns with GCC partners.

    Human rights in the Gulf states